The clinical diagnosis of internal diseases of animals
Diagnosis (gr. diagnostikos — able to recognize) — section of clinical veterinary medicine that studies methods of recognition of disease. Each disease or pathological process is accompanied by certain symptoms or syndromes, identification and careful study of which allows timely diagnosis.
Symptom (gr. symptoma — in this case, the symptom, painful attack) is a sign of a pathological condition or disease. Clinical manifestation the symptoms are divided into permanent and non-permanent, typical and atypical.
Persistent symptoms accompany the disease during the whole period of its development, such as endocardial murmurs at defeat of valves of the heart, cough with inflammation of bronchi and lungs. Non typical symptoms of their manifestation at a certain stage of the disease. So, the nasal expiration rusty-brown cbeta in croupous pneumonia appears at the stage of resolution of the inflammatory process in the lungs; jaundice with hepatitis’t see immediately in the beginning of the disease, and after a certain time.
Typical (specific, specific) symptoms strictly characteristic of opredelennosti. It is possible to accurately make a diagnosis. For example, splashing in traumatic pericarditis, sharp declines in blood magnesium in hypomania-MIA, the leaping pulse in case of insufficiency of the valves of the aorta.
Atypical (common) symptoms accompany many diseases and reflect the General reaction of the whole organism. For example, depression, loss of appetite, increased body temperature, increased heart rate and respiration.
Syndrome (gr. sindroma — cluster merging) is a natural set of symptoms, United by a common pathogenesis of the disease. For example, the syndrome of heart failure with myocarditis includes the following symptoms: shortness of breath, tachycardia, cyanosis of mucous, etc; the syndrome of colic in acute expansion of the stomach — disturbing, unnatural positions, rolling on the ground, etc.
Diagnosis (gr. diagnosis — recognition) — conclusion on the nature and essence of disease, i.e. the condition of the animal, the cause of his death (case), forced slaughter.
The timing of detection of the disease distinguish the diagnosis of early, late and posthumous. Early diagnosis at the beginning of the pathological process that allows for timely and the most effective treatment and preventive measures. Late diagnosis even in the presence of developed or ending of the pathological process, and often complications, poeto mu is already difficult and sometimes even impossible to achieve good therapeutic effect. The posthumous diagnosis is determined by results of pathoanatomical autopsy or inspection of carcasses and organs of slaughtered animals.
By the soundness of the diagnosis is preliminary, definitive and presumptive (tentative). Preliminary diagnosis is based on primary data a preliminary examination of the animal, the final — after a thorough examination and graduation.similar diseases, as alleged in cases where there is no confidence in his justification.
According to the method of recognition distinguish direct diagnosis, differential, diagnosis through observation, the diagnosis of therapeutic effect.
Direct diagnosis (or by analogy) based on the comparison of the signs observed in a patient/ animal, with symptoms of known diseases.
The differential diagnosis is based on excluding similar symptoms of other disease and needs further verification. A defining moment is the choice of the most revealing, typical leading symptoms of this case of disease. Differential method is used in the formulation of any diagnosis and to confirm it.
Diagnosis is by observation put down on the basis of a long study of the disease, such as traumatic reticulate.
Diagnosis therapeutic effect of set after applying the specific means and methods of treatment, for example after parenteral administration of glucose with ketosis, magnesium salts Hypo-magnesii, immunospecificity serum in erysipelas of pigs.
The diagnosis is often Supplement and clarify, in addition to detecting primary disease related pathological processes, secondary diseases (polymorbidity).
Prognosis (gr. prognosis — definition, prediction) — prediction of the probable nature of the development and outcome of disease, based on knowledge of the regularities of pathological processes. On its basis determines the duration, complications and outcome of the disease, determine the choice of therapeutic agents and methods, make a conclusion about the commercial use of animals or compulsory slaughter.
Depending on the disease stage and flow patterns, conditions of feeding and maintenance of animals the prognosis may be favorable, unfavorable and doubtful.
Favorable prognosis happens when confidence in the full recovery of the animals with the restoration of production, reproduction and health, and unfavorable when certainly incurable diseases, such as in leukemia, traumatic pericarditis, intussusception of the intestines in the horse. Questionable prognosis implies doubt as to full or partial recovery, the recovery of economically useful qualities of the animal or its performance.
The forecast determines the economic feasibility and specific methods of treatment.